Finally, some elements are taken into account in assessing the potential benefits of combining various green technologies to promote synergies with green extraction technologies and improve efficiency, improve the economic balance, and reduce environmental impact. Terpenes could be a successful substitute for petroleum solvents, such as dichloromethane, toluene, or hexane, for the extraction of natural products.
This chapter provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction using terpenes, the techniques, the mechanism, some applications, and environmental impacts. The main benefits are decreases in extraction times, the amount of energy used, solvents recycled, and CO 2 emissions. Natural products and fermentation broths are complex systems. Extraction processes such as emulsion extraction, a process derived from the industrial liquid-liquid extraction, can be used to remove molecules.
This chapter presents preview studies dealing with these two processes for bio-products and notably for organic acids from biomass: different parameters were described. Then, a study on eco-conception of these processes for gallic acid with bio-diluents one hydrogenated terpene and three ethylic fatty acid esters was presented and compared with results using dodecane, a current petrochemical diluent. A pre-study about eco-conception of liquid-liquid extraction for gallic acid was performed.
Pilot Scale Extraction
An extractant as tributyl phosphate TBP was necessary, and extraction yield was higher with TBP diluted in ethylic fatty acid esters than in dodecane. So it is possible with esters to reduce the TBP concentration. In extraction by emulsion with the esters as diluents, there was no need of an extractant, gallic acid being slightly soluble in these esters. However, emulsion containing these bio-diluents swelled, which do not exist with dodecane. The gluconic acid is an inexpensive and bio-based organic compound with new insights to drive growth in the eco-friendly industries.
In organic chemistry, the gluconic acid is considered as a sustainable medium for organic reactions; meanwhile, natural product technologies suggest their potential as green solvents for extraction. In this chapter, advances of use of gluconic acid as a green solvent are presented in combination with green technologies for production of polysaccharides from biomasses from animal chitin , microbial chitosan-glucan , or vegetal pectin origins. Furthermore, this weak organic acid is capable of depolymerizing chitosan under microwave radiation for the production of water-soluble chitosan. The use of gluconic acid in combination with biomasses and clean technologies offers new green processes for the production of specialty polysaccharides and its derivatives under environmentally friendly process.
MeTHF has the advantages to be biodegradable and has a promising environmental footprint, good preliminary toxicology assessments, and an easy recycling. An experimental study was conducted with MeTHF, in comparison to n-hexane, for the extraction of carotenoids and aromas. In parallel to this experimental study, a HSP Hansen solubility parameters theoretical study has been realized for the evaluation and the understanding of the interactions between the solvent and different compounds such as triglycerides contained in canola oil, carotenoids, and aromas.
The results of these studies show that MeTHF appears to be a potential alternative solvent to n-hexane for the extraction of various products. Water remains the cheapest and the safest solvent to eco-friendly extract number of biogenic substances from the worldwide biodiversity to produce natural water-soluble extracts containing several biomolecule families such as polysaccharides, proteins, polyphenols, glycosides, etc. Among these water-soluble compounds, some showed potential free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity.
As extraction processes were often time consuming, mechanical operations can be added to the extraction process to speed up water diffusion of valuable compounds from raw material.
Apart from using conventional operating techniques such as mechanical stirring coupled with extraction medium heating, newly developed ones may increase efficiency of water-extraction processing. These innovative techniques include ultrasound-assisted extraction, pressurised hot water extraction, negative pressure cavitation-assisted extraction and pulsed electric field-assisted extraction. Some of these techniques are still under development at various scales, from the laboratory to the pilot plant, but others are already operational and used in industrial processes.
After water-extraction step, purification and concentration of extracted products is often needed. Additional process steps are added, including membrane separation technology and gel column chromatography. They are already used at industrial scales and are preferred to heat-based separation techniques. They are claimed to better preserve biological activity of most of the heat-sensitive water-extracted compounds as they efficiently operate and avoid compound liquid—gas phase transition.
Dr Rostagno is an analytical chemist based at the University of Campinas, Brazil. His research interests include modern extraction and analysis technqiues and materials, phytochemicals and natural products. Jump to main content.
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Biofuels Engineering Process Technology. Nghiem Phu Nhuan. Microencapsulation in the Food Industry. Anilkumar G. Erik Sogaard. Susheel Kalia. Handbook of Food Science and Technology 2. Romain Jeantet. Food Protein Chemistry. Joe Regenstein. Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering. Vincenzo Piemonte.
Guo-Fang Pang. Sharad Vats. Green Polymer Composites Technology. Bioremediation and Sustainability. Romeela Mohee. Alternative Solvents for Natural Products Extraction. Maryline Abert Vian. Mohammed Mansour. Laboratory Handbook for the Fractionation of Natural Extracts. Peter Houghton. Product Design and Engineering.
Willi Meier. Analysis of Pesticides in Water. Alfred S. Water Pollution. Jiri Hrubec. Edible Oleogels. Alejandro G. Bio-Based Polymers and Composites. Richard Wool.
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Ullmann's Fine Chemicals. Raimo Alen. Natural Product Extraction. Mauricio A Rostagno. Fabrizio Cavani. Syed S. Natural Polymers. Ololade Olatunji.
Biorelated Polymers. Emo Chiellini. Ion Exchange Technology II.
Microalgae Biotechnology. Clemens Posten. Carbohydrate Chemistry.